Employees play a vital role in the success of a business as they provide the only strategic weapon a company has and cannot be copied. The impact of human resource management (HRM) resources on organisational performance and employee satisfaction has been a leading area of research in the developed world for years. Organizations today are facing a volatile business environment characterized by the acquisition of human resources; hence in order for an organization to protect their human resources from poaching, there is a need for them to keep employees motivated and satisfied (Lamba and Choudhary, 2013). HR policies are the foundation of optimal utilisation, management, employee satisfaction, and productivity in every organisation.
Administrative personnel operations, performance management, employee relations, and resource planning are all supported by policies, which are systems of codified choices issued by a company (Memon, Panhwar and Rohra, 2010). Because each business has its own set of conditions, it generates its own set of policies. Policies should be written down, distributed throughout the business, and reviewed and amended on a regular basis to reflect changing conditions. According to Horwood et al. (2021), job satisfaction is a positive emotional state resulting from an employee’s job experience. The connection between job satisfaction and HR policies has to be validated to promote managerial strategies aimed at employee efficacy and overall organisational performance.
Human resource management has been a leading area of research; however, a limited number of studies have been conducted in the area. This research was carried out to fill a gap in the literature and investigate the link between HR policies and employee satisfaction in the context of United Kingdom (UK) enterprises that might benefit from the findings by analyzing the relationship between HR policies and job satisfaction (Mumford and Sechel, 2019). This research would contribute to current human resource management research and practice. Furthermore, it would be beneficial for businesses to change their HR policies in order to improve employee happiness.
The current study was carried out to answer the following research questions (RQ):
- RQ1: Is there a connection between HR policies and employee satisfaction?
- RQ2: To what extent do HR policies affect employee satisfaction?
- RQ3: Do HR policies influence employee satisfaction?
The study’s overall goal was to look at the impact of HR policies on employee satisfaction. The following particular objectives were explored in order to achieve this goal:
- To investigate employees’ perceptions of the selected human resource policy.
- To assess employee job satisfaction.
- To evaluate the relationship between selected HR policies and employees’ job satisfaction.
The dissertation is divided into five chapters. Chapter one provides a brief background of the research area, outlines the problem statement and covers the research objectives. Furthermore, the chapter has identified three research questions critical to the research. The second chapter is a literature review that seeks to examine information already explored on the subject by other researchers as well as their perspectives on the subject. The third chapter, on the other hand, went into further detail on the research strategy, data gathering techniques, and analysis. Following that, the fourth chapter revealed the study’s outcomes and findings. Finally, in chapter five, the research addressed the conclusions, results, and recommendations.
This chapter reviews literature that is related to and compatible with the study’s aims. Significant theoretical and practical issues are raised, as well as pertinent literature on the subject of the link between human resource policy and employee job satisfaction. The review will first focus on human resource management in general before moving on to explore elements that affect employee work satisfaction with an emphasis on HR policy.
Although it was often assumed that HRM practises began with the industrial revolution, the truth is that HRM has a far longer history. Humans in ancient civilisations divided labour amongst themselves in the same way that workers in contemporary corporations shared jobs (Bratton et al., 2021). As a result, division of labour may be considered to have existed since the beginning of time. Human Resource Management has emerged as a critical component of many organizations around the world. Today, we live in a world that is highly structured (Stahl et al., 2020), where tasks are assigned based on skills. Before the term human resource, the terms administration or personnel management were used. These terms were concerned with workers within an organization.
The goals of human resource management might alter different definitions. Since this concept of HRM differs from one researcher to the next, the goals of HRM might also differ depending on the perspective. The overall objective of human resource management, for example, according to Armstrong and Brown (2019), is to guarantee that the business can accomplish success via people. HR policies also attempt to assist programmes aimed at boosting organisational effectiveness by adopting policies in areas like knowledge management, talent management, and establishing a pleasant work environment. HRM is a systematic approach to managing employment relations (Bratton et al., 2021). It underlines the value of optimizing an individual’s potential to obtain a competitive advantage. This is done by the use of a particular set of practises, regulations, and programmes. These programs are referred to as HR policies and cover various aspects of human resource management.
Human Resource Policies
HR policies are a set of practices used by organisations to manage human resources by enabling the growth of firm-specific skills and knowledge, producing intricate social relationships, and generating organisational knowledge in order to maintain competitiveness (Minbaava, 2005). Human resources policies often address topics including recruitment, selection, training and development, remuneration, reward, and recognition. The current research will focus on the most significant HR policies revolving around job satisfaction and other essential organisational factors, such as training and development.
Compensation, based on Siregar and Hafnidar (2020), is a bucket of financial rewards comprising salaries, insurance bonuses, wages, commissions, and other sorts of cumulative monetary benefits provided by employees. Irrespective of firm size, sector, or business strategy, most executives and academics believe that happy, productive workers are vital to organisational growth. However, how to please them is an area that has been explored in several studies (Berliana, Siregar and Gustian, 2018; Siregar and Hafnidar, 2020). One common technique is to provide employees performance-based remuneration, which can take one of two forms: compensations are delivered to personnel peer assessment of their performance, or compensations are offered as wide institutional benefits, such as profit-related remuneration or part ownership.
When it comes to compensation, several studies have demonstrated that it has both a beneficial and detrimental influence on work satisfaction. Berliana, Siregar and Gustian (2018) found a link between remuneration and employee attitudes in their research. According to the study, various remuneration systems can lead to an increase in work. Employees who are compensated based on performance and targets may work too hard and too intensively, resulting in job-related stress or poor health (Huettermann and Bruch, 2019). However, limited research exists on whether compensation is linked to the view that work becomes more intensive and how it can affect employees’ work experiences, especially job satisfaction.
Training and development
Training and development is the formal term for continuing efforts inside institutions to enhance employee self-efficacy via the use of various educational programmes and methods. According to Armstrong and Brown (2019), training and development is a continual process that not only improves current capabilities but also leads to the growth of skills, expertise, and attitudes that equip individuals for future responsibilities in a senior role within the organisations also in their career development. These activities have several varied uses inside businesses these days, ranging from training in extremely specific work skills to long-term career growth (Mira, Choong and Thim, 2019). Employee quality and continual skill and productivity development via training are increasingly recognised as critical determinants in long-term growth and profitability in enterprises.
Extensive training programmes can contribute to improved operational efficiency. Employee development requirements may be met, resulting in adaptable, independent, and motivated individuals who act independently and put out the unfettered effort. Training and development not only initiate the development of skills and behavioural patterns but also drives employees to utilise those skills and behaviours in their job roles.
One of the most essential and vital HR policies is performance appraisal. According to Armstrong and Brown (2019), performance evaluation is described as a formalized assessment and rating of an employee by their management at a review meeting, which is normally held once a year. In general, performance assessment is a method of systematically evaluating an employee’s performance (Huettermann and Bruch, 2019). Huettermann and Bruch (2019) also claim that performance appraisals cause discontent in a lot of firms. This indicates a failure of performance assessment as a tool for developing and inspiring employees. Employees must have received some type of positive feedback for performance assessment to have a beneficial influence on their behaviours and development. If this is not the case, the appraisal will fail. This view is observed in Islam et al. (2020), where they study the effects of management objectives on performance appraisal and employee satisfaction in commercial banks. According to their findings, performance appraisal is successful and can lead to job satisfaction if employees are recognised for their efforts, are content with the firm, and want to stay.
Job satisfaction is a happy or good emotional state coming from an evaluation of one’s job experiences, and it is a product of the observed link between what one desires from one’s job and what one sees it deliver. According to Mira, Choong and Thim (2019), job satisfaction is the difference between the employee’s contributions and the job’s deliverables. If the response is affirmative, the employee is happy with his or her employment, and vice versa. Job satisfaction is determined not just by an employee’s personal qualities but also by work-related features prevalent in the workplace (Kaushal et al., 2021). Job satisfaction is becoming more widely recognised in the field of organisational behaviour.
Job satisfaction may be seen from three different angles. Job satisfaction, according to Garmendia et al. (2021), is a sensation that cannot be measured as a concrete item. Second, he claimed that employee perceptions of being compensated for their contributions to the company might influence work satisfaction. Finally, he stated that numerous employment qualities, such as income, advancement, and the task itself, are dispositions that might be linked to job happiness. Based on this view of job satisfaction, attributes contributing to job satisfaction can be viewed in the form of HR policies such as training and development, compensation, and job appraisal, among others, as key to this effect (Berliana, Siregar and Gustian, 2018). Employees must believe that their firms are doing their utmost to fulfil their requirements within their economic, environmental, and budgetary limits. In this sense, human resource policies and practices are appropriate for representing organisational characteristics.
2.5.1 Adams’ equity theory. Adams’ theory is concerned with how people are treated in comparison to others. According to Mira, Choong and Thim (2019), the equitable treatment of employees creates a motivated workforce, whereas unequal treatment creates a demoralised workforce. According to Adam’s theory, there are two types of equity, distributive and comparative equity. In distributive equity, people are rewarded based on work performance in comparison to others, whereas comparative equity s associated with workers’ impressions of the impartiality with which procedures like performance review, advancement, and discipline are carried out. As a result, if HR practices are seen to be fair and equal, this hypothesis predicts work happiness (Houldsworth et al., 2021). In contrast, work unhappiness can result from discriminatory and inequitable HR rules. As such, this theory is patent to this study as it shows the link between HR policies and job satisfaction.
Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor theories
According to this notion, employees are influenced by two factors: hygiene and motivation. Working circumstances, supervisory competence, reputation, job stability, income, corporate regulations and management, and interpersonal interactions are all hygiene aspects that guarantee employees are not unsatisfied. Employee satisfaction can be rightfully associated with growth, accomplishments and other motivating aspects of employee duties (Kaushal et al., 2021). The Herzberg two-factor theory is used to describe the relationship between the ideas of HR policies and job satisfaction within a business making it patent to this research.
Empirical Literature Review
Impact of training and development on job satisfaction
HR policies play a critical role in job satisfaction. Latif, Jan and Shaheen (2013), in their study, examined the association between job training satisfaction and learning development aspects of job satisfaction. In the study, 500 questionnaires were distributed, of which 413 copies were returned, and 317 were used to analyse the relationship between the learning development aspect of job satisfaction. Based on the research findings, satisfaction with the training courses resulted in job satisfaction, clearly showing a link between training and development and job satisfaction. Similarly, Shaheen, Bukhari and Adil (2016) studied training development programs and employee satisfaction at Marks and Spencer, London. The study utilized probability sampling due to accessibility to employees, where a total of 419 responded to the investigation phenomena. The research found a significant relationship between training and development and employee satisfaction.
Impact of performance appraisal on job satisfaction
Performance appraisal plays a critical role in job satisfaction. This view is evident in several studies. Ray and Ray (2011) employed survey research methodologies, and a total of 570 questionnaires were analysed. Data were analysed using correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The findings demonstrated that performance evaluation had a considerable beneficial influence on work satisfaction. In another study, Houldsworth et al. (2021), explored the impact of the performance appraisal process on job satisfaction among academic staff in higher education institutions in the UK. The study employed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Based on the research findings, there was a link between performance appraisal and job satisfaction. However, the research found that most of the staff within the universities were unsatisfied with the appraisal method.
Impact of compensation on job satisfaction
Compensation has been found to play a pivotal role in job satisfaction. Yaseen (2013) investigated the impact of remuneration components on job satisfaction. In this study, a simple random sample approach was employed, as well as correlation, ANOVA, and regression analytic techniques. Pay, recognition, advancement, and meaningful work all had an impact on job satisfaction, according to the findings.
Research Design and Methodology
The focus of this chapter will be on research methodology, which includes the processes and methods for collecting and analysing data. The study philosophy, survey population, and research field are all covered in this chapter, as well as design and processes, variables and measurement techniques, data collecting method, ethical considerations, and data processing and analysis.
The study utilized a positivism research philosophy since the goal of the research is to gather evidential data on the link between HR policies and job satisfaction. Positivism was chosen because it believes that only “verifiable” data obtained via observation, including measurement, is reliable. The researcher’s function in positivist research is confined to collecting data and unbiased analysis. In other terms, the researcher is a detached observer who does the study without regard for personal views. The study outcomes in these sorts of investigations are frequently apparent and quantitative. Furthermore, for decades, positivism has dominated studies in business and management sciences. As a philosophy, positivism is consistent with the objectivist concept that knowledge is derived from life experiences (Collins and Stockton, 2018). It takes an individualist, ontological approach to the world, seeing it as a collection of separate, measurable elements and events that interact in predictable, predictable, and regular ways.
Research Approach and Design
The research design is a framework for undertaking research with the most control over aspects that might skew the results’ validity. Study design, according to Kothari (2004), is the structuring of circumstances for the collection and analysis of data in a way that tries to combine relevance to the research objective with procedural efficiency. He goes on to say that the research design is the conceptual framework for doing research; it is the blueprint for data collecting, evaluation, and analysis.
The research also adopted a quantitative method. Quantitative research methods, according to Bell, Harley and Bryman (2022), are based on deductive concept, in which the researcher tests and measures hypotheses against the established theory. This study used a cross-sectional survey research approach as its research design. This technique was chosen for its economic sustainability since it allows for the use of questionnaires to gather data from a broad population, as well as the ease with which it is conducted.
Depending on the nature of the questions, questionnaires may be categorised as either quantitative or qualitative methods. Quantitative approaches are used to analyse responses acquired through closed-ended questions (also known as restricted questions) with multiple choice answer alternatives. For this research, restricted questionnaires were deemed appropriate. Questionnaires were sent out by email for this study. The advantages of email surveys include their low cost, time efficiency, and the fact that respondents are not rushed, so they may respond when they have time, delivering more accurate responses. The biggest disadvantage of mail surveys is that respondents may choose to disregard them rather than responding them.
Population and Sampling Design
A population, according to Bell, Harley and Bryman (2022), is the whole group of elements as to which we want to draw conclusions. The study’s target group included non-management employees. The survey questions were sent to 210 university staff, with 120 responding. These individuals were polled since they were once impacted by the institution’s HR policies.
The research utilized a stratified random sampling technique. The goal of stratified random sampling is to ensure that the sample represents a certain stratum or subgroups. As a result, a stratified sampling includes splitting the population into multiple subgroups and proportionately picking individuals from each stratum. Stratified sampling, according to Khalid, Abdullah and Kumar (2012), increases the statistical efficiency of a sample, offers appropriate data for studying the various subpopulations, and allows alternative research methodologies and processes to be employed in different strata. In this study, stratified sample procedures were preferred, in which respondents were separated into departments-based strata.
The researcher used convenience sampling to choose respondents within each stratum until the needed sample size was obtained. Convenience sampling is a sort of sampling in which the first accessible primary data source is used without any further constraints for the study. The strengths of this study approach are that it is handy for researchers, but the downside is that it is prone to bias, and according to Bell, Harley and Bryman (2022), the researcher cannot be certain that the participants are representative of the population. The researcher utilized this technique since the institutional employees are distributed throughout the campus and satellite campuses, and it would be time-consuming to survey all the employees.
Data Collection Methods
This research depended on primary data. As a result, this study employed a questionnaire to obtain data from respondents. The questions were organised as closed-ended, and they were disseminated by email. The questionnaires were divided into three parts. Part one of the questionnaire included demographic questions such as the respondents’ age, gender, marital status, educational level, duration of service, and monthly salary. The second section included HR policy, remuneration, appraisal, and training and development, with each section including four components. Responses were based on a five-point scale, with one (1) representing “strongly disagree” and five (5) representing “strongly agree.” Finally, total work satisfaction was measured with 36 items based on Spector and O’Connell (1994). Responses were based on a six-point scale, with one (1) indicating “strongly disagree” and six (6) indicating “strongly agree.”
Data Processing and Analysis
The quantitative data analysis approach was applied in this investigation. The SPSS software package was utilized to code the data and introduce research variables. The latter were computed via manipulation of the multi-item scales. Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the degree of job satisfaction rate and HR policies. With the aid of four variables (one dependent and three independent), multi-item measures were successfully implemented in the research process. The association between variables linked to job satisfaction and HR policies was tested using multiple regression. Job satisfaction was picked as the dependent variable. Performance assessment, training and development, and compensation were picked as independent variables. To test the reliability of the study, the Cronbach alpha test was used.
Ethical considerations are one of the most significant aspects of the research. For this investigation, ethical factors were taken into account, and prior informed permission from respondents to participate in the study was acquired. The institution granted permission to conduct the research project via a letter. All responders were promised that the information they supplied would be kept private.
Data Presentation and Analysis
This chapter examines the link between human resource policy and employee job satisfaction. It includes an overview, a description of the sample, demographic information about the respondents, a reliability test, research objectives, and discussions.
The demographic was based on age, gender, marital status, education level, income per month, and length of service. As earlier observed, of the 210 questionnaires sent, 120 responded, making a 57% response rate. According to Khalid, Abdullah and Kumar (2012), a response rate of 50% is acceptable for analysis, whereas 60% is good, and 70% is great. The results are presented in the table below.
Table 1: Response Rate
|Response Rate||Sample Size||Percentage|
Respondents were asked to fill out questionnaires on their gender, age, marital status, education level, income level, and length of service in order to establish demographic features. In terms of gender, 50 (42%) were male, 48 (40%) were female, and 22 (18%) identified as non-binary. The majority of the respondents were aged between 26 and 35, accounting for 52 (43%), followed by those aged between 35 and 45, accounting for 28 (23%), and those aged between 18 and 25, accounting for 22 (18%), and lastly those aged 46 years and above accounting for 18 (15%). The majority of the participants were married, accounting for 70 percent (58 percent), with the remainder 50 (42 percent) being single. Most of the respondents were graduates, with some having obtained a doctorate degree or being in the process of earning one. Of the 120 respondents, 72 (60%) had only a bachelor’s degree, 29 (24%) had a doctorate degree, and the remaining 19 (16%) were pursuing a higher degree.
In terms of service length, the majority of the respondents had served in the institution for less than three years that account 60 (50%), followed by 4 – 6 years 30 (25%), 7 – 9 years, which accounted for 15 (12.5%), and those above ten years were 15 (12.5%). Based on the income level, most respondents earned £64000, accounting for 71 (59%), while the remaining earned above £64001, accounting for 49 (41%). The table below outlines the demographic distribution of the respondents.
Table 4.2: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
|18 – 25 years||22||18.3|
|26 – 35 years||52||43.3|
|36 – 45 years||28||23|
|46 years and above||18||15|
|In process of Acquiring a Higher Degree||19||16|
|< 3 years||60||50|
|4 – 6 years||30||25|
|7 – 9 years||15||12.5|
|Level of Income|
|< £ 64000|
The internal consistency of the measuring scale is checked using Cronbach’s alpha. According to the test, training and development had a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.686, indicating that the internal consistency of four items was satisfactory, compensation had a co-efficient of 0.761, indicating that the internal consistency of four items was satisfactory, performance appraisal had a co-efficient of 0.568, indicating that the internal consistency of four items was low, and job satisfaction had a co-efficient of 0.772, indicating that the internal consistency of 36 items was satisfactory. The Cronbach reliability test variables are shown in the table below.
Table 4.3: Variable Reliability Statistics
|Variables||Cronbach’s Alpha||Number of Items|
|Training and Development||0.686||4|
Assessing Research Objectives
The first research objective within the framework of the current dissertation was to investigate employee satisfaction with selected HR Policies. According to the study, employees perceived more performance appraisal at an average of 17.96, followed by training and development at an average of 14.86, and compensation lowly perceived at an average of 9.89. These findings show that it is essential for the organization to come up with relevant HR policies to keep the team motivated and display positive behaviours. With this information in mind, it can be concluded that employee satisfaction is effectively linked to selected HR policies. The focus for future research projects should be on individual motivations and interests, as numerous employees tend to display behaviours that depend on their attitude toward HR policies being released. In other words, the HR unit could exercise its policymaking ability to ensure the team gets all the opportunities for development and collaboration.
The second research objective was to assess employee job satisfaction. The study found that the mean score of 128.23 was somewhere between 108 and 144, indicating ambivalence. This indicates that respondents’ sentiments regarding work satisfaction were mixed. On a long-term scale, ambivalence can be considered a positive finding because it brings more flexibility to the workplace. Essentially, the second research objective was attained to prove that HR policies inherently mediate workers’ attitudes through the interface of appealing to their personal interests. The current findings extend the results of accomplishing the first research objective and leave enough room for future studies intended to aid the researcher in validating updated hypotheses related to the organisational significance of HR policies. An ambivalent workplace is rather unlikely to become negatively lopsided, which makes it safe to say that the existing findings reinforce the importance of developing and deploying policies that are supported by the majority of team members.
The third research objective was to assess the relationship between selected HR policies and employees’ job satisfaction. Based on the research findings, there exists a relationship between HR policies and job satisfaction. Not only does this validate the connection between HR policies and employee satisfaction, but it also creates a premise for the idea that worker attitudes could be altered with the aid of managerial interventions. The rationale behind assessing HR policies is that they could contribute to improved organisational performance on a long-term scale and spark worker collaboration. With this information in mind, organisations could invest more resources in HR policymaking to consider employee needs and aspirations. The presence of a statistically significant connection between HR policies and job satisfaction makes it clear that more organisations could appeal to the attainment of ambivalence in an attempt to improve employee performance and commitment.
Speaking of RQ1, there is a definite connection between HR policies and employee satisfaction. This association stems from the fact that many workers depend on how the managers approach them and what kind of rewards they propose. The importance of this research question is reinforced by the idea that there are different ways to motivate employees to perform and remain committed. Thus, the multitude of HR policies is a reflection of how the organisation treats employees and expects them to perform based on the existing conditions. It is rather unlikely that a non-friendly approach would appeal to an employee and motivate the latter to perform better. With time, a strong HR policy could be translated into improved organisational performance even without any specific rewards, as the given worker would be driven by the willingness to improve the existing state of affairs.
The RQ2 took a different approach to the subject and helped the researcher review the extent to which HR policies affected employee satisfaction. It was found that workers were typically moved by positive policies that gave them more autonomy and curbed competitiveness to an acceptable level. Without hostility and demotivation in place, employees are going to have an opportunity to perform better while also contributing to policymaking by providing timely feedback. Even though it is often overlooked, worker feedback and employee satisfaction are engaged in a close relationship where the effects are interdependent. The statistical significance of the data obtained when processing surveys shows that employee satisfaction cannot be reviewed separately from HR policies. Managers should pay attention to relevant responses from employees in order to be able to alter respective policies and influence certain decisions linked to staffing, rewards, and promotion.
When answering the RQ3, the researcher was willing to find out if HR policies influenced employee satisfaction. The positive connection between organisational decisions and employee performance highlighted that close-knit relationship even more. With relevant evidence available to validate the association between job satisfaction and HR policies, it could be crucial for managers to learn more about their individual employees to find evidence on how to create leverage and capitalise on the team’s strong suits. On a long-term scale, the focus on HR policymaking would make it easier for the team to generate positive, valuable ideas that could appeal to the whole team and individual employees regardless of the primary sources of motivation moving them forward.
The first message that can be pointed out when looking at the findings of the current dissertation is that employee satisfaction could be associated with organisational culture and strong worker commitment. For instance, workers could become friends with each other and improve employee satisfaction mutually, making it easier for the management to facilitate teamwork. With a stronger culture in place, the organisation would have an opportunity to reinforce the value of HR policies. The gradual progress would encourage socialisation and a closer connection between the employer and individual workers. This insight is important because it shows how job satisfaction depends on communication and collaboration efforts that are not centralised. The growing impact of globalisation has to be taken into consideration to have managers develop and deploy HR policies that would appeal to employees regardless of their location. Greater engagement is going to serve as a demonstration of the effectiveness of proposed policymaking-based changes where job satisfaction will be one of the key predictors of organisational effectiveness.
Another message that is conveyed via the results of the current dissertation is that there are numerous organisations where the level of bureaucracy has to be reduced in order to improve teamwork and job satisfaction. Due to the fact that most expansion processes are unstoppable, HR managers have to adapt to the ever-changing workplace environments where policymaking has to include all stakeholders and not just executives. The main objective of the team is to avoid generating frustration in employees and focus on the possibilities of reducing the incidence of workers blaming each other for common mistakes. Through the interface of learning more about job satisfaction and its association with HR policymaking, employees could avoid frustration and streamline processes while gaining a higher level of autonomy. As the need for collaboration grows daily, the current findings suggest effective changes that should occur to help teams save resources and deploy policies that would make workers less anxious and stressed. In turn, it would lead to increased job satisfaction and the formation of a productive workplace environment.
The final message that the results of the current dissertation convey is the importance of connecting job satisfaction to employees’ opportunity to attain transparency and drive intraorganisational communication. For example, if the level of job satisfaction is critically low, workers will be subject to displaying reluctance and reduced levels of performance. This means that effective communication between the HR unit and employees should be maintained to help every stakeholder remain informed. The findings from the current dissertation also reinforce the need for an increasing level of organisational transparency and timely feedback. The need to consider job satisfaction and link it to HR policymaking should be reinforced by means of strong communication and employee encouragement. With more opportunities for workers to display their concerns, organisations could reach higher levels of performance while paying attention to each other’s opinions and feelings.
The fundamental recommendation that can be made after conducting the existing research and obtaining results regarding the link between job satisfaction and HR policies is to investigate the aforementioned relationship further. The results that were obtained should be validated repetitively in order to highlight the importance of HR policies as a moving force that could alter intraorganisational relationships and strengthen collaboration attitudes. Consequently, it should make sense for the researcher to address the significance of existing results by comparing prior job satisfaction values to new findings. Over time, the HR management unit would benefit from such findings when looking into opportunities of increasing employee efficiency through collaboration and job satisfaction. Thus, future investigations should be based on the idea that there is a connection between employee efficiency and job satisfaction. Given the increasing importance of HR policies, the current findings create enough room for the hypothesis that staff members could be effectively motivated through the interface of timely incentives.
Another area of concern that should be included in the section with recommendations is the lack of insight into reward policies. HR management could benefit from assessing this type of policies and generating an evidence-based approach to how employees could be motivated to perform with the aid of rewards. The differences between individual and group rewards create a research gap that should be addressed in order to prevent low performance and inappropriate organisational behaviours. The lack of relevant rewards could motivate employees to search for approval outside the organisation. Thus, the main objective of future research projects in the area could be to establish strategies for preventing workforce members from seeking external rewards. The HR unit would be involved in the research process while being one of the parties providing timely feedback on employee performance and the effectiveness of unique rewards. On the other hand, the issue of reward policing would disclose the potential inefficiencies linked to the lack of employee commitment, workplace inequalities, and demoralised staff.
One more area of research that could be based on the topic of HR policymaking is employee promotions. To a large extent, employee satisfaction depends on how often workers get promoted. The reasons behind promotions also play an important role because they can disclose potential organisational injustice and highlight the biggest gaps in managerial strategies. Even though financial incentives often support employees to the highest degree, some workers are motivated by non-monetary benefits that could be attained with the aid of promotions. This is why employee efficiency should be aligned against specific merits that one could achieve while also experiencing job satisfaction. In order to research the potential ways of protecting the existing workforce from quitting their jobs, scholars would have to connect the dots between employee satisfaction and promotion opportunities. With relevant insights from workers, it will be easier to analyse the most enhancing methods of organising corporate performance and measuring the outcomes. Without these insights, HR managers would not have enough data to make informed decisions on promotions and rewards for the best employees.
The ultimate recommendation for future research projects in the field of employee satisfaction and performance is to link HR policies to the opportunities inherent in training and development. Employees that have access to a relatively high level of autonomy are much more likely to perform better and accept reasonable rewards that do not put anyone else in the organisation at a disadvantage. Therefore, a balanced relationship between the HR management unit and employees requiring training and development could lead to positive long-term organisational outcomes. This means that additional research could aid scholars in finding the best educational strategies that could motivate employees to perform and remain committed to their organisations. From the point of view of academic investigations, a thorough outlook on training and development initiatives might help HR managers see what strategies work or do not work for personal and group strategies. Continuous improvements should be recognized as one of the keys to HR policies motivating workers to pursue career development and relevant skills training. Thus, any given organisation can be hypothesised to benefit from training and development efforts.
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