Understanding the features of staff management is the knowledge that is important for most people working in companies. The study of the various factors that influence the employee’s intention to leave for the UAE ICT sector is a topic of interest to me.
The workforce is a valuable asset that management needs to interact with effectively to avoid decreasing performance and loss of valuable employees. In this regard, this is essential to identify corresponding factors and variables that determine the willingness of personnel to perform their responsibilities effectively. A few criteria are highlighted, which are associated with the team’s microclimate and the staff’s readiness to do everything possible to achieve high operational results. The relationship among these parameters proves the complex structure and interdependence of different aspects of employees’ current working environment perception. This proposal aims to reveal the relationship among the following variables:
- Person-Environment Fit.
- Psychological Capital.
- Job Satisfaction.
- Job Engagement.
- Organizational Commitment.
- Intention to Leave.
The analysis of the relationship among the presented variables shapes the research framework and determines the need to identify the interdependence among individual criteria. The study includes a mixed-method design as the main research methodology and is devoted to identifying the interaction between such couples as person-environment fit – psychological capital and job satisfaction – job engagement, as well as their impact on the aspects of organizational commitment and intention to leave. Determining the relationships between these variables is necessary since they are interrelated and define employees’ attitudes to work.
For example, a person with high psychological capital can better adapt to the company’s environment. However, if the environmental fit is insufficient, the employee is more likely to leave the job. Job satisfaction influences employees’ willingness to be engaged in work tasks and reduces the likelihood of leaving. At the same time, for many employees, job engagement can be an important factor in job satisfaction; hence, these aspects are interconnected. Moreover, these factors can also act as moderators influencing the relationship between the variables. For example, being involved in a job can improve immediate fit, as the employee feels useful and important in the workplace. This feeling affects both job satisfaction and increases psychological capital, reducing the intention to leave. Organizational commitment can also be a predictor of intention to leave because an employee’s responsibility to the company or certain members can be a barrier to job change. Consequently, all these factors and their influence on the intention to leave should be analyzed to determine the points of influence and management of employees.
As a promising field with broad human resources, the UAE ICT sector is the target industry to evaluate the presented correlations. All of these factors have a significant impact on employee turnover in industry and companies; hence, studying them will help managers find ways to manage people to retain employees. For me, as a specialist [your specialization], this aspect is critical to work effectively and developing my career.
The study is aimed at findings answers to specific research questions:
- What is the relationship between person-environment fit, psychological capital, job satisfaction, work engagement, organizational commitment, and intention to leave for the employees in the UAE ICT Sector?
- How does job satisfaction play a mediating role in affecting the relationship among other variables?
- How does work engagement play a moderating role in affecting the relationship of other variables?
Research Gap and Motivation
Many relevant studies are devoted to researching the interdependence among the presented variables, but these papers include limited criteria. For instance, Rauvola et al. (2020) consider the relationship between job satisfaction and person-environment fit; Kun and Gadanecz (2019) and Aydin Sünbüland and Aslan Gördesli (2021) assess the correlation between psychological capital and job satisfaction; Jiang et al. (2019) draw a parallel between job satisfaction and intention to leave. However, to date, all the aforementioned variables have not been considered in a single study. Moreover, these issues have not been studied in the context of the UAE ICT Sector. Consequently, the interdependence and relationship between variables and the moderating effect of certain factors are unclear. This issue will be met in future research to improve the quality and approaches of personnel management.
The study is aimed at addressing relevant objectives to check the correlations among the offered variables and their role in the area in question. Firstly, the research will measure person-environment fit, psychological capital, job satisfaction, job engagement, organizational commitment, and intention to leave for the employees in the UAE ICT sector. Secondly, the research will determine the type and degree of the relationships between these six variables for the employees in the area under consideration. Thirdly, the research will present suggestions and recommendations to improve and strengthen person-environment fit, psychological capital job satisfaction, job engagement, and organizational commitment for the employees in the UAE ICT sector and to decrease their intention to leave.
Based on the current findings from academic sources, 12 key hypotheses have been made by comparing the variables under consideration with one another:
- H1: There is a positive relationship between person-environment fit and job satisfaction because an employee who feels like a part of the team is more satisfied with their job.
- H2: There is a positive relationship between psychological capital and job satisfaction as the employee copes better with stress and positively perceives work challenges.
- H3: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and organizational commitment as an employee who is satisfied with their work shows loyalty to the company.
- H4: There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave because low job satisfaction leads to the desire to find a better job.
- H5: There is a positive correlation between person-environment fit and job satisfaction as moderated by engagement, which increases the value of person-environment fit and job satisfaction.
- H6: There is a moderating effect of engagement on psychological capital, which, in turn, improves job satisfaction because an employee has more motivation and resources that influence the perception of work.
- H7: Job engagement moderates causal relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, where the latter depends on the former.
- H8: Job engagement as a moderator predetermines the relationships between job satisfaction and intention to leave an organization since employees engaged in work feel their value as workers.
- H9: There is a positive impact of job satisfaction as a mediator on person-environment fit (an independent variable), resulting in organizational commitment (a dependent variable) since a satisfied workforce is more likely to perform optimally and remain loyal to an organization.
- H10: There is a positive relationship between a high person-fit environment (an independent variable) and low intention to leave (a dependent variable) as job satisfaction mediates a person-fit environment as a dominant force in one’s career.
- H11: There is a mediating role of job satisfaction regarding psychological capital (an independent variable) whose amount impacts the level of organizational commitment (a dependent variable).
- H12: Job satisfaction as a mediator enriches psychological capital (an independent variable), which reduces the intention to leave (a dependent variable) since having meaningful job experiences is attractive to employees.
As the concepts that form the theoretical framework of the study, the person-environment fit theory and the affect theory have been chosen. According to Morin (2018), the first one postulates that a combination of individual resources and environmental factors identifies the ability to adapt to changes. The ability of employees to adapt to the work environment depends both on personal qualities, for example, a positive response to challenges and communication skills, and on external factors such as organizational culture. This concept may be of good use to better understand the relationships between engagement moderating person-environment fit and job satisfaction, intention to leave, and organizational commitment, as well as job satisfaction mediating the mentioned variables.
The affect theory argues that job satisfaction is largely determined by the value people to assign to the various aspects of their work, as well as the extent to which their job-related expectations are met. As Morin (2018) states, an individual’s values inform their expectations, while the discrepancy between the anticipated benefits and reality identifies either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. For example, if a person expects high autonomy of actions in their work, but they are controlled by a manager, job satisfaction decreases. At the same time, another employee, who is in the same conditions, is satisfied with the work as they expected a high level of control. This theory is a convenient model to better understand how employees identify and view their job satisfaction and associated workplace settings and changes.
The proposed research will be based on a mixed-method design as this type of work will make it possible to conduct a comprehensive explanation of how each of the independent variables relates to or can influence the dependent variable. As the sample, all the employees at the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority and Digital Government will be involved. Their total number is 300, and in addition, technical Etisalat and du employees will be engaged. The study will be descriptive/analytical in nature; the Person-Environment Fit & Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction, Job Engagement, Organizational Commitment, and Intention to Leave status of the research sample will be described, and the type and degree of relationship between these six variables will be measured. Both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected to find the necessary correlations and assess the participants’ responses. As the data collection method, social surveys will be utilized, and a 7-point Likert scale will be offered to the members of the study to range their responses in the categories of the variables in question.
Analysis and Work Plan
The participants’ responses will be analyzed through such statistical methods as percentages, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, 6 square, Cronbach, alpha, regression Analysis, T-test, F- test, and some other approaches. To test the validity of the measurement scale, relevant steps will be taken:
- Presenting the scale to the research supervisor, several judges/reviewers, and a specialist in SPSS and statistics science.
- Applying the scale to several employees at the Telecommunication and Digital Government Regulatory Authority in the UAE.
- Amending, correcting, and reviewing the scale based on the comments of the research supervisor, judgers/reviewers, specialists in SPSS and statistics science, and employees.
In accordance with the declared work plan, the study will be carried out from July-August 2021 to November-December 2022. A literature review and editing will be the longest stages and will last throughout the entire period. The final submission will take place when all the data are evaluated and compiled into statistical reports. The main analysis is expected to be carried out in the spring of 2022.
Human resources are the most valuable asset of most companies, and the identification of the principles of effective organizational management can be carried out based on six key criteria – person-environment fit, psychological capital, job satisfaction, job engagement, organizational commitment, and intention to leave. As the target field to review, the UAE ICT sector will be involved, particularly the employees at the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority and Digital Government and technical Etisalat and du employees. Due to a mixed-method descriptive/analytical study and social surveys, correlations between the presented variables will be identified and based on the current findings from academic literature, the existing theoretical background of the relationship among the proposed criteria will be supplemented.
Aydin Sünbül, Z., & Aslan Gördesli, M. (2021). Psychological capital and job satisfaction in public-school teachers: The mediating role of prosocial behaviors. Journal of Education for Teaching, 47(2), 147–162.
Jiang, F., Zhou, H., Rakofsky, J., Hu, L., Liu, T., Wu, S., Lie, H., Liu, Y., & Tang, Y. (2019). Intention to leave and associated factors among psychiatric nurses in China: A nationwide cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 94, 159-165.
Kun, A., & Gadanecz, P. (2019). Workplace happiness, well-being and their relationship with psychological capital: A study of Hungarian teachers. Current Psychology, 1-15.
Morin, J. (2018). Leadership and change management. Ed-Tech Press.
Rauvola, R. S., Rudolph, C. W., Ebbert, L. K., & Zacher, H. (2020). Person-environment fit and work satisfaction: Exploring the conditional effects of age. Work, Aging and Retirement, 6(2), 101-117.