The ICT sector in the UAE has been developing rapidly with support from the government that provides aid in the form of licensing and policies that promote business activity. By 2025, this industry will experience a compound growth of 3.5%, which will affect employment and organizational management strategies. Since employees are the central resources that allow businesses to grow and reach their strategic targets, there is a need to define factors that may lead to the worker’s dissatisfaction with their position and their intention to stay. Previous studies have defined the moderating effect of work satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to stay, engagement, psychological capital, and the person-environment fit. However, none of the previous studies has determined the correlation between the six factors since the majority of the researchers have focused on examining the connection between two variables. Therefore, the present research will address the gap in understanding how the six factors moderate and mediate the employees’ intention to stay using the example of the ICT industry in the UAE.
An organization can be defined as a group of people working together towards a common purpose or set of goals (Eknath & Gadekar, 2020). The people or the ‘human resources’ are therefore the greatest assets for most companies. The people drive the company towards its vision. Thus, it is only logical that every organization strives hard to keep their most valuable asset happy and satisfied at work. Life in contemporary organizations is interconnected, intertwined, and sometimes complicated, so we find in the vast majority of matters that most aspects of work are intertwined together and are affected by each other, directly or indirectly, positively or negatively, and to a large, medium or low degree.
The factors that impact a person’s commitment and desire to work in an organization may be related to the industry and its specifics. For the UAE, telecommunications has been a gover priority in terms of business development and support, and this sector is expected to grow substantially by 2025 (Mordor Intelligence, 2021). Hence, by studying the factors that mediate and moderate the employees’ satisfaction with their job and their desire to continue working for an organization, the present study will contribute to the enhancement of the organizational environment and workplace productivity of the telecommunications businesses
Likewise, we find that the scientific research conducted on today’s organizations deal with the study of some variables, whether they are independent, intermediate, or dependent, in order to know the type and degree of interrelationships among these variables, and you find that there are interrelated, and overlapping relationships between these variables (Smit, 2018). The current research will study the relationships between six variables as follows:
- Person-Environment Fit
- Psychological Capital
- Job Satisfaction
- Job Engagement
- Organizational Commitment
- Intention to stay.
By looking at some of the related previous research studies, the researcher found that they dealt with two or more of these variables, and that they found relationships between these variables (Abdullah et al., 2019; Smith, 2018). But the researcher did not find a single study interested in studying the relationships between all these variables at the same.
In a business context, the issues on improving job satisfaction and organizational commitment tend to be discussed most of the time, for example, by Mohd et al. (2003) and others. This is because these elements have become a strategic driver for a successful business. In most organizations, they prefer to derive benefits in their way from their ethical efforts in the form of increased employee satisfaction and commitment; however, they yet have figured out how to do it successfully. However, some previous research studies showed that employee’s resignation from one organization only after a few months of work to seek another job did show an increase in number throughout recent years. The current study is concerned with determining the relationship between (Person-Environment Fit & Psychological Capital) and (Job Satisfaction & Job Engagement) and its impact on (Organizational Commitment & Intention to stay) through carrying out an applied study on the UAE ICT Sector.
Telecommunications as the Study Context
Firstly, to brief the readers on the specifics of the information and communications technology (ICT) sector in the UAE, it is necessary to look at its history, present, and future perspectives. According to Mordor Intelligence’s (2021) report, the compound annual growth of this industry will be at 3.5% by 2025. This rapid growth is attributed to the government’s focus on ICT as they have established policies that contribute to the development of these businesses, such as the 2003 Telecom Law. Additionally, Mordor Intelligence (2021) ITU News (2011), and TDRA (n.d.) report that the growth of ICT is associated with the end-user interest in telecommunications, mainly the internet and applications such as IoT, cloud computing, and others.
The ICT sector in the UAE has been growing exponentially in the past. As for the future, there are several initiatives, such as the Dubai Smart City or the introduction of the 5G connection across the state, which will contribute to the future growth of this industry (Mordor Intelligence, 2021). Notably, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ICT and contributed to the 1.5% decrease in the revenue of the ICT companies (Mordor Intelligence, 2021). However, the prospects for the future suggest that ICT will continue to grow and develop, as this is one of the centers of the government’s attention, which means that more people will be employed in the ICT-related businesses, and organizations’ leaders will have to look for strategies for effectively managing their human resources.
When looking at the history of the ICT sector in UAE, its establishment and further developments are linked to the introduction of Radio and other telecommunications technologies (TRDA, n.d.). Naturally, as the telegraph, telephone, and radio technologies became available in the UAE, both individual consumers and businesses began to use these technologies. However, until 2007 the industry’s development has been constrained as not much competition was present. In 2007 the government introduced its liberalization policies and created a licensing system that would allow more businesses to begin working in telecommunications (ITU News, 2011). Moreover, in 2010 based on the ICT Development Index, the UAE has been ranked as the state with the most developed infrastructure in this sector (ITU News, 2011).
The UAE ICT sector can be characterized by significant growth within the last decades, where the Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority (TDRA) (2021) is the main responsible party. The government of the UAE sets a high priority on the development and implementation of ICT in various spheres of life.
the UAE’s businsses pay great attention to measuring the satisfaction of employees at the workplaces, the evidence is quite limited regarding the ICT sector. In their study, Murali and Aggarwal (2020) examine the impact of transformational leadership style on employee engagement and job satisfaction. The authors revealed that there is a strong positive correlation between the mentioned leadership style and employee engagement. Accordingly, it is assumed that higher employee engagement serves as a moderator of organizational commitment and person-environment fit (Murali & Aggarwal, 2020). The study also demonstrates that employee engagement enhances the confidence of employees regarding their performance, which can be considered as a positive impact on psychological capital accumulation.
As for job satisfaction of employees as a mediating factor in the UAE ICT sector, the companies strive to use this concept to manage associated variables, such as person-environment fit, organizational commitment, and intention to stay. However, the relationships between these variables and the mediating factor are not yet properly studied in this field. Abdullah et al. (2011) state that the collectivist culture of the UAE makes external and internal factors of job satisfaction important. Therefore, further studies are critical to establishing specific relationships between the above-mentioned variables so that the findings can benefit in adjusting the ICT sector workplaces through employee engagement and job satisfaction.
Statement of the ProblemSince the ICT sector is an important industry for the economic development of the UAE, research that contributes to the enhancement of workplace productivity and work effectiveness can help organizations’ leaders manage their workplaces more effectively. Mainly, work satisfaction, which is one of the factors that is studied in the present research, is associated with productivity and employees’ intention to stay an organization, as supported by evidence from the study by Wu and Norman (2004). Employees choosing to leave a company has two primary effects on the business (Mashuri & Maharani, 2019; Jiang et al., 2019; Sasso et al., 2019). The first one is the need to find a replacement for this position, which requires time and efforts of the H.R. specialist, meaning that the business loses money when an employee leaves due to the need of investing in the recruitment and training of a person who will replace them. Secondly, whilst a company is looking for a replacement for the position, it also loses money and productivity since other employees have to adjust their work to account for the tasks that should have been completed by an individual who left (Abo El Nasr, 2015; Saks & Gruman, 2014). As a result, an intention to stay and employees who choose to transfer to a different organization is an issue for the businesses is an issue and companies can address it by implementing practices that will help with the factors that moderate or mediate this intention to stay. Hence, the problem that this study investigates is linked to organizational performance, costs, and companies in the ICT sector creative, effective workplace environments where employees’ intention to stay is mitigated.
The thesis will fix the problems since it will answer the ultimate question of how an ICT company’s work environment can be adjusted to suit the needs of the employees and ensure that they are committed, satisfied, and do not plan on leaving this organization.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant due to its contribution to the development and enhancement of work productivity of the companies in the ICT industry. As was mentioned previously, the Mordor Intelligence (2021) report suggests that the ICT sector is among the most important ones and fastest developing sectors in the economy of the UAE. Moreover, the government emphasizes the need to support the development of this economic sector, which is why studies that investigate workplace efficiency are important for this sector and the overall economic development of the UAE. Moreover, this study is significant not only because of the importance of the ICT sector for the economic development of the UAE but also since businesses operate more effectively when their employees are committed, engaged, and satisfied with their work. For example, Abo El Nasr (2015) and Saks and Gruman (2014) examine the meaning and impact of human resources on the organization and argue that this is the most significant asset and that companies should invest in developing the tacit skills and knowledge, as well as on strengthening the bond between the professionals and their employer. This necessity is linked to the fact that professional skills do not mean that an individual will be working relentlessly or will engage in creative and innovative work for the benefit of the organization since they will not be motivated to do this. Moreover, research by van Vianen (2018) suggests that there is a need to invest in hiring people whose values and views align with those of the organization because this means that the employee will understand the goals of the business and will work to ensure that the company achieves these. However, the author also notes that in most cases, the hiring decisions are the suboptimal choice between the values of the company and the individual and the latter’s skills and knowledge. This is where the importance of training and development, as well as strategies, to ensure commitment and engagement. There is evidently a link between the different organizational factors and employees’ behavior; however, the link between these elements is not well researched. The thesis will fix the issue by examining the moderation and mediation effects of the different variables.
Research Objectives and Research Questions
The objective of this research is to understand the relationship between the following variables: (Person-Environment Fit & Psychological Capital) and (Job Satisfaction & Job Engagement) and its impact on (Organizational Commitment & Intention to stay). Moreover, this study will determine if these variables have a moderating effect on a person’s intention to stay an organization since these variables may have a moderating mediating effect on the employees’ intention to stay. The goal is to help companies in the ICT sector understand how to manage their human resources in a way that would mitigate the employees’ intention to stay and therefore contribute to the productivity of work for the organization.
The current research will try to answer the following questions:
- What is the relationship between person-environment fit, psychological capital, job satisfaction, work engagement, organizational commitment, and intention to stay for the employees in the UAE ICT Sector?
- How does job satisfaction play a mediating role in affecting the relationship of other variables?
- How does work engagement play a moderating role in affecting the relationship of other variables?How does work satisfaction correlate with the individual’s intentions to leave the organization?
- Is the employees’ intention to stay linked to their commitment and satisfaction with work, considering their psychological capital and intention to stay?
Table 1 1 below demonstrates the research gaps that characterize the existing studies on job satisfaction and the moderation-medication effect and how the present study will address these inconsistencies. Previous researchers have provided evidence of the relationships between:
- Person-Environment Fit and Psychological Capital
- Person-Environment Fit and Job Satisfaction
- Psychological Capital and Job Satisfaction
- Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement
- Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
- Job Satisfaction and Intention to stay
|Research gap||How this study will address this gap|
|Most articles describe a relationship between two or three moderating variables (Luthans, 2004;, Luthans & Youssef, 2004; Darvishmotevali & Ali, 2020)||This research focuses on six variables that are all potentially linked to job satisfaction and intention to leaveintention to stay|
|There is no study that would investigate the relationship between different organizational factors and the intention to leaveintention to stay||This study will examine the six factors in combination to have an in-depth investigation of the employees’ decision to leave|
|There are no studies that focus on the investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of the different workplace-related factors||The focus of this research is on the moderating and mediating effects|
|There are no studies that would examine the research variables in the context of the ICU industry of the UAE.||This research will address the problem by specifically researching the ICU sector.|
Table 1. Research gaps (created by the author).
The literature review below will investigate the relationship between different organizational factors and their moderating effect on the job satisfaction and person’s intention to stay. As evident from the studies that will be presented, the majority of the research relevant to the topic is not recent and published more than five years ago and none of the studies investigate the relationship between the six variables that are the focus of this research. Moreover, not many studies are dedicated specifically to the investigation of the human resource management practices pertaining to the ICT industry in the UAE, which is another research gap that this research aims to address.
The concept of a person-environment fit (P–E fit) is a crucial to proper business administration, particularly, the allocation of human resources. P-E fit can be identified as the extent of compatibility between an individual and the environment (Tepper et al., 2018; Xiao et al., 20121). Specifically, Andela and van der Doef (2018, p. 2) determine P-E fit as “the compatibility between an individual and a work environment that occurs when the characteristics are well matched.” Van Vianen (2018, p. 76) goes even further, suggesting that the specified definition should be simplified to the “compatibility between individuals and their environment.” Thee approach toward defining P-E fit offered by van Vianen (2018) is quite strong, yet it could benefit from a greater nuance (Chang et al., 2020; Arias et al., 2020). In turn, Liu et al. (2019) complete the specified definition by adding the context of the work-life balance as the context in which the person-environment fit framework should be placed a, thus, providing the missing perspective. Specifically, the notion of the person-environment fit implies the compatibility between a specific setting, which in the context under analysis is represented by the workplace environment, and individual characteristics such as culture, needs, social background, etc. (Mufti et al., 2019; Stich et al., 2019). The extent of compatibility between a persona and the environment determines the probability of a positive outcome (Sharf et al., 2017).
Another essential concept to be considered in relation to the subject matter, particularly, the P-E fit and the promotion of positive relationships in the workplace as the tool for enhancing the staff’s performance, psychological capital should be discussed. Darvishmotevalia, and Ali (2020)define psychological capital as the individual’s concern about the possible prospects that may occur in the future in regard to one’s career and the promotion opportunities (Maher et al., 2017). The specified point of view can be considered rather narrow since it involves mainly the perspective of an employee and does not allow for a comprehensive interpretation of the psychological capital, particularly, in the context of a specific organization. In turn, Tang (2020) introduces the concept of the psychological capital from a slightly broader point of view, interpreting it as an individual’s ability to apply the skills relayetd to emotional intelligence and emotional competence in order to stay motivated. Sameer (2018) contributes to the specified interpretation, confirming the importance of positivity in the workplace as a vital IE skill, similarly to Tsaur et al. (2019) and Çelik (2018). The described perspective appears to be more sensible given its potential for encompassing both the individual and the organizational standpoints on the issue of psychological capital (Gong et al., 2019; Mahfud et al., 2020). Therefore, the proposed interpretation of the psychological capital;, including the explicit knowledge and skills pertaining to the management of workplace situations derived from personal and professional experiences, needs to be deployed when addressing the issue of P-E fit. Therefore, it is vital for companies to invest in creating the environment in which staff members will be encourage and inclined to perform better (Aybas & Acar, 2017; Howard, 2017).
A recent study by Darvishmotevali and Ali (2020) investigated the effect of job insecurity, individual’s wellbeing, and their performance at work and the impact and mediating role that the psychological capital has on these factors. Mainly, job insecurity was found to have a negative effect on the person’s wellbeing and on their workplace productivity. Next, psychological capital can adversely affect job insecurity, psychological wellbeing, and work productivity (Darvishmotevali & Ali, 2020). Mainly. The idea behind this study was that an employee’s psychological capital could aid in them dealing with job insecurity, therefore resulting in their adequate wellbeing even in conditions where they do not have security. However, the findings suggest the opposite, although the limitations of this research, such as it being conducted with the hospitality industry employees, should be considered as well.
Another critical concept that contributes to the development of a proper strategy for motivating staff members and allows building an environment in which they can succeed, job satisfaction needs further considerations. Being a rather subjective concept that depends not only on the presence of objective factors such as financial benefits, but also on a plethora of personal perceptions, the concept of job satisfaction is quite difficult to characterize (Qureshi & Hamid, 2017; Lim et al., 2017). However, multiple attempts have been made, some of the most successful being the representation of job satisfaction as “the level of contentment a person feels regarding his/her job and the sense of accomplishment he/she gets from doing it” (Sironi, 2019, p. 3). Therefore, the notion of job satisfaction is tethered to the presence of emotional gratification that an employee receives from workplace performance (Murali and Aggarwal). For this reason, considering job satisfaction as a critical variable in assessing the effects of P-E fit on the rates of organizational commitment and the intention to stay is necessary.
Remarkably, a range of scholars connect the concept of job satisfaction to the presence of a proper work-life balance. For example, Appelbaum et al. (2019), Prasetio et al. (2017), Kim and Yoon (2018), and Haski-Leventhal et al. (2019) insist that the described parameter is the fundamental notion in creating a positive workplace environment and ensuring that an employee feels comfortable in the organizational context. Ćulibrk et al. (2018), Demir (2020) and Abouraia and Othman (2017)also explain that job satisfaction is closely linked to the concept of organizational commitment and influences it directly, causing an increase in employee engagement and commitment with the rise in job satisfaction rates.
Another essential notion that needs to be introduced in order to measure the correlation between P-E fit and the extent of organizational commitment, as well as the intention to stay, work engagement represents a major criterion.
There are several ways of approaching the notion of work engagement. Xiang et al. (2017, p. 240) define work engagement as “a combination of work ability and willingness to work.” Diniyati and Sudarma (2018, p. 173) characterize work engagement by attributing the properties such as “vigor, dedication, and absorption” to it. Although the described concepts as they pertain to the assessment of work engagement rates might seem synonymous, the researchers explain that the specified notions reflect different attitudes, specifically, the ability to focus on the job (absorption), loyalty to the company and the job (dedication), and excitement about the prospects of attaining key objectives (vigor) (Diniyati & Sudarma, 2018). Work engagement should not be confused with job satisfaction (di Stefano & Gaudiino, 2018). Representing the enthusiasm and motivation to perform (work engagement) as opposed to obtaining gratification from the obtained results (job satisfaction), work engagement requires the support of job motivation (Evitha et al., 2021). Since motivation defines the employees’ willingness to stay with the company, work engagement is vital in cementing their loyalty to the company and reducing turnover rates.
There are different definitions of employee engagement among different scholars, organizations, and different countries (Table 1). The concept of employee engagement was first proposed by Kahn (1990) as the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles; self-employment and self-expression of people physically, cognitively, and emotionally in their work lives (Nasurdin et al., 2019; El Junusi et al., 2021). Since Kahn proposed this concept, researchers have proposed different definitions which reflect a different understanding of employee engagement in each study, but this caused confusion for business management whether the efforts which improve employee engagement are working in all organizations (Çankır & Şahin, 2018; De Crom & Rothmann, 2018).
Kahn, William A.(1990) defined employee engagement as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization’s reputation and interests. Engaging employees is critical for retaining valuable talent and is an important piece of the employee satisfaction puzzle, as disengaged employees are more likely to leave their jobs (Geue, 2018). According to Forbes, employees who are engaged in their work are more likely to be motivated and remain committed to their employer (Paulise, 2020).
When addressing the connection between the propensity among staff members to leave and the extent of P-E fit, one must also consider the issue of organizational commitment. The subject matter has been studied quite profusely lately, yet the phenomenon of organizational commitment has been defined comparatively recently. Started with the introduction of Meyer and Allen’s model of organizational commitment as a aaa in 1991, the concept in question has been developed extensively in the 2000s (Reddit et al., 2019).
Currently, the concept of organizational commitment is determined as the willingness of an individual to contribute to the development of a company and the accomplishment of its objectives, as well as the overall extent of engagement in the firm’s performance in the target market (Reddit et al., 2019).
The current study defines organizational commitment or employee commitment as the ability of the employee or staff members of the organization to stay and contribute well to their jobs for such a long term.
Overall, organizational commitment can be defined as a positive feeling or commitment from employees towards their organization. Organizational commitment has three kinds, as following: emotional or affective commitment, normative commitment, continuance commitment (Reddit et al., 2019).
Normative or ethical commitment refers to an individual’s feeling of an obligation to remain in the organization due to pressure from others, and because of moral or ethical and personal commitment to the organization and towards colleagues (Elsaearvy, 2005, 219 ).
Emotional or affective commitment indicates the strength of the individual’s desire to continue working because he or she agrees with all its goals and values, and he or she wants to participate in achieving those goals (Greenberg & Baron, 2007). Also, organizational commitment refers to the sincerity, love, and inclusion that an individual shows towards his or her work and the organization in which he or she works (Abo El Nasr, 2005, 45).
Furthermore, Continuance Commitment refers to an individual’s desire or his / her willingness to remain with the organization (Solomon, 1992 , 52) and to continue working in it because he or her expects that if he or her leaves work in it, it will cost him or her a great loss, meaning that continued commitment is based on the individual’s commitment to continue working in the organization as long as he or she achieves the benefits he or she needs (Greenberg & Baron, 2007, 216; Al-Madi et al., 2017).
Remarkably, the concept of organizational commitment is inherently connected to the levels of organizational performance in staff members (Lim et al., 2017). Indeed, multiple studies confirm that the rates of meeting workplace responsibilities and objectives in individuals hinge largely on the extent of organizational commitment (Nikpour, 2017). In fact, a range of researches indicate that organizational commitment represents the staff members’ extent of engagement and motivation (Al Zefeiti & Mohamad, 2017). Therefore, it will be reasonable to define the subject matter as the “degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization,” as Ahad et al. (2021, p. 16) suggest. Overall, the evidence of connections between the extent of employees’ willingness to leave and the rates of organizational commitment appears to be quite large, though further insights into the issue must be developed (Ahad et al., 2021). Specifically, both issues appear to be tied to the degree of comfort that an employee experiences when participating in workplace routine (Lambert et al., 2021). Therefore, the concept of organizational commitment needs to be seen as a vital part of the assessment of the possibility of an increase in employee turnover rates (Ahad et al., 2021). Thus, a strategy for managing the latter issue can be developed.
Intention to stay
Intention to stay is a well-studied concept and scholars have explained it in various ways.
Intention to stay is defined as the level to which a member contemplates leaving the relationship with current employer (Kim, Price, Muller, & Watson, 1996).
Also, intention to stay is defined as an ‘individual’s own estimated probability (subjective) that they are permanently leaving the organization at some point in the near future” (Vandenberg & Nelson: 1999, 1315).
The turnover intention is defined as a behavioral intention that emerges from different factors such as policies applied within an organization, labor market characteristics and employee perceptions (Gaertner & Nollen, 1992).
In other words, the intention to turnover is the member’s intentions to leave the firm among its employees (Kim et al., 2010).
The intention to stay may have been caused by the individuals’ negative opinions and attitudes toward their job and workplace (Shwu-Ru & Ching-Yu, 2010). Griffeth & et. al. (2000), Barak & et. al. (2001) and Kim & et. al. (2010) posit that that intention to turnover has been recognized as a precursor or predictor to the real turnover. Thus, the intention to turnover has a great consequence of the actual quitting process within organizations (Bachmann & DeConinck, 2005).
However, the correlation between the intention to stay and the rise in turnover rates needs to be studied further. Remarkably, while a range of studies show a direct correlation and causation between the intention to stay and the increased turnover rates in the organizational setting, some researchers point to the fact that the intention to stay does not necessitate the decision to do so (Coward et al., 1995). Therefore, there is a notable research gap in the specified area. Additionally, links to P-E fit should be examined closer since they represent another gap in the current body of research.
In several types of research, the former idea leads to use the turnover intent (Karatepe & Kilic, 2007), or intention to stay the job and used a dependent variable (Coward et al., 1995).
Cho et al. (2009) reported that earlier studies have shown that the intent to leave is a very important predictor of actual quitting. Thus, the behavioral intention is the most direct factor that leads to the actual employee turnover (Muliawan & et. al., 2009; Barak & et. al., 2001).
In the light of the previous research studies , the research statement and the research concepts it can be introduced the following conceptual framework which determines the research variable as shown in Figure 1.
Specifically, Fig. 1 points to the correlation between the extent of moderation and the rates of mediation. Namely, the extent of engagement rates in employees, among other factors, appears to be affected heavily by the presence of motivation. More importantly, the connection between P-E fit and the extent of psychological capital in the organizational setting appear to be in direct correlation to each other, as Fig. 1 shows. Furthermore, the correlation and causation between P-E fit and the increase in psychological capital appears to be mostly confirmed, as the table below illustrates. Specifically, due to the development of the approach to managing the human resources in the way that allows them to be placed in the setting where they feel most comfortable, the opportunities for avoiding conflicts, misunderstandings, mismanagement of information, and the related issues can be created (Muliawan & et. al., 2009).
Person Environment Fit and Job Satisfaction
Previously conducted research on the relationship between these variables provides valuable insights as per the validation of the hypothesis. A meta-analysis conducted by Ahn and Lee (2019) was based on 15,589 employees whose person-environment fit was analyzed against job-related variables. The scholars integrated person-organization, and person-job fit into the first variable, and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to stay into the second variable. The findings of the study indicate that there is a strong positive relationship between person-environment fit and job satisfaction. Moreover, Redelinghuys et al. (2020), Redelinghuys et al. (2019), and Rocconi et al. (2020) validated the positive relationship between person-environment fit and job satisfaction when it is reinforced by leadership or organizational culture. Similar findings were delivered by Deschênes (2020), who identified that among the components of person-environment fit, the person-job fit was most vividly correlated with job satisfaction.
Moreover, the aspect of age influence on the relationship between the variables was addressed by Rauvola et al. (2019). This study identified that job satisfaction of older adults was more dependent on person-organization fit, while younger employees’ job satisfaction was more significantly influenced by person-job and person-group fit. A study by Gander et al. (2020) used a nationally representative sample of the employed adult population to measure the person-environment, and character strengths influence on job and life satisfaction. It was found that the stronger the character and the better the person-environment fit, the higher the level of job and life satisfaction. Furthermore, other authors concentrated on the impact of person-environment fit on job satisfaction in different fields of occupation and types of organization; the findings unanimously indicated a positive relationship between variable as found in federal employees, police officers, and project management professionals (Wang & Brower, 2018; Wang et al., 2020; White et al., 2021). Thus, the reviewed scholarly literature allows for supporting the hypothesis.
H1: There is a positive relationship between person-environment fit and job satisfaction.
Psychological Capital and Job Satisfaction
Several studies have been found to provide information on the moderating influence of psychological capital, including optimistic worldview, self-efficacy, resilience, and family support, on job satisfaction. According to Kun and Gadanecz (2019) and Aydin Sünbüland Aslan Gördesli (2021), whose primary area of concern was the educational field and teachers’ job experience, psychological capital predetermines better job satisfaction. Valuable insight on the correlation between health outcomes and psychological money was contributed by Diržytė and Perminas (20201), who found that people with fewer health issues demonstrate a higher level of psychological wellbeing, implying better opportunities for life and job satisfaction. A similar field-focused safety-management-related research on the correlation between the two variables found a positive relationship between psychological capital and safety compliance (Ye et al., 2020). Similarly, using data collected from a female sample with the help of a self-reported questionnaire, Ganji and Johnson (2020) identified the positive effect of family support on women’s job retention and satisfaction. Furthermore, Huynh and Hua’s (2020) research on the factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment using data from employees at small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam found that job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing were essential determinants for job commitment.
H2: There is a positive relationship between psychological capital and job satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Previous studies investigating the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment in various fields provide the basis for supporting the hypothesis. Indeed, according to Romi et al. (2021) and Jigjiddorj et al. (2021), higher levels of job satisfaction led to better organizational performance, compliance with corporate policies and culture, as well as a commitment to the job. Moreover, as found by Zhu et al. (2014), job satisfaction and commitment are the driving forces of sustainable organizational development; identified positive relationships between job satisfaction and loyalty were proposed for practical use. However, as found by Goujani et al. (2019), not all categories of employees as derived from the loyalty matrix have a higher commitment as a result of job satisfaction; namely, the category of hostage employees showed a low level of loyalty. Nonetheless, the positive effect has been persistent in a general population of the reviewed studies.
H3: There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Job Satisfaction and Intention to stay
As the review of previous studies suggests, lower job satisfaction triggers a higher level of likelihood to leave a job. According to Jiang et al. (2019), such factors as job satisfaction, payment, workload, and others, had a negative relationship with the intentions to resign. Similar findings were presented by Sasso et al. (2019) and Al-Muallem and Al-Surimi (2019), who identified that an increased level of nurses’ turnover and pharmacists’ intention to stay was highly dependent on diminished job satisfaction. Moreover, study results obtained by Mashuri and Maharani (2019) support the hypothesis and indicate negative relationships between the two variables. Therefore, since previous research findings provide relevant, verifiable, and credible data on the correlation between job satisfaction and the likelihood to leave a job, one might conclude by supporting the hypothesis.
H4: There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to stay.
Engagement Moderating Person-Environment Fit and Job Satisfaction
One might assert that engagement moderates the relationship of dependence between the independent variable of person-environment fit and the dependent variable of job satisfaction based on the anticipated increased value of person-environment fit under the influence of engagement, which will ultimately affect job satisfaction, increasing it. Accordingly, managers can promote fit between jobs and employees to achieve organizational fit and improve job satisfaction. The awareness of managers of the moderating effect of engagement can serve as the foundation for implementing practical actions in terms of organizational design, as well as employee socialization and retention. However, person environment fit is not to be considered as a general agenda, but regarding fit perceptions, thus supporting employees on their developmental trajectories (Wang et al., 2020). By remaining aware of person-environment fit and job satisfaction dependence, managers can successfully regulate the organizational mechanisms.
The evidence regards personal resources as predictors of job satisfaction, but scholars do not consider job engagement as a mediator of productivity and job satisfaction (Redelinghuys et al., 2019); Rocconi et al., 2020). Moreover, the range of psychological phenomena that correlate with work engagement or pretend to be prerequisites is wide enough, and their role is not clearly defined. For example, self-efficacy is associated with enthusiasm, and it can be both a prerequisite and an effect. Perhaps employees with more resilience are more capable of remaining interested in work and ready to overcome various difficulties in work, which correlates with resilience as a personal resource. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of engagement as a moderator requires additional theoretical and empirical testing that can be conducted in the future studies.
H5: There is a positive correlation between person-environment fit and job satisfaction as moderated by engagement, which increases the value of person-environment fit and job satisfaction.
Engagement Moderating Psychological Capital and Job Satisfaction
A positive change in the value of psychological capital, as an independent variable, will result in the consecutive positive change in the dependent variable, job satisfaction. Engagement, as a moderator in the causal relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable, might either increase or decrease their relationship. In this case, engagement can be regarded as a stable and deep emotional and motivational state affecting various mental processes, which does not focus on any specific object or form of behavior, but describe an employee’s attitude to work in general. It provides resources, such as physical, social, and organizational aspects, which help to facilitate work requirements associated with high psychophysiological and psychological costs (Kun & Gadanecz, 2019). For example, conflict resolution, overtime work, and stress are moderated through a high degree of engagement, which is essential to achieve the set work goals and stimulate the personal and professional growth of employees.
There is a need to investigate engagement as a moderator between psychological capital and job satisfaction. In particular, since the psychological capital is a resource of socio-psychological relations, due to which an employee is able to successfully achieve the intended goals, one should discover the connection between both dimensions. Despite the fact that both variables function in different ways in terms of a person’s job-related attitudes and behaviors, they should have the same result, such as an increase in the quality of a person’s work, therefore, a rise in job satisfaction (Aydin Sünbüland & Aslan Gördesli, 2021). Moreover, the ability of engagement to either improve or deteriorate job satisfaction caused by psychological capital specifics is critical to study to gain the awareness of the issues to integrate or avoid in a workplace.
H6: There is a moderating effect of engagement on psychological capital, which, in turn, improves job satisfaction.
Engagement Moderating Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Since engagement is not a causal result of job satisfaction, it moderates the relationship between independent (job satisfaction) and dependent (organizational commitment) variables. There is a need to explore the relationships between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the context of employee performance and engagement. Moral considerations compose one of the components of employee engagement. On the one hand, a satisfied employee is more likely to feel a moral obligation to act loyally to the company. On the other hand, the continuity obligation expresses the concept that the commitment to work is dependent on the balance of costs and benefits for a certain employee. Future research is necessary to identify various methods and strategies to increase organizational commitment through improving the job satisfaction of employees. These include strategies in which employees can work together in a way that creates a strong bond. Those who feel a strong attachment and connection to the workplace demonstrate a higher level of commitment to the organization (Jigjiddorj et al., 2021; Romi et al., 2021). Based on the results obtained, a number of recommendations for the development of employee commitment can be made.
H7: Engagement moderates causal relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, where the latter depends on the former.
Engagement Moderating Job Satisfaction and Intention to stay
Past studies indicate that there is a correlation between the levels of engagement and, therefore, the willingness of an employee to leave. Specifically, the hypothesis concerning high engagement rates being correlated directly with job satisfaction and inversely with the desire to resign is supported by the studies by Warr and Inceoglu (2012) and Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2014). However, the past body of work indicates that there is a gap in the analysis of the subject matter. Furthermore, Kassing et al. (2012) also insists on the connection between employee engagement and the intention to stay by pointing out that low levels of motivation and the intention to stay are co-occurring scenarios of the expression of dissent.
Since there is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to stay, the value of engagement as a moderator between independent (job satisfaction) and dependent (intention to stay) variables will predetermine the relationship between the variables. It is important to identify the role of engagement in the impact of low job satisfaction on an employee’s search behavior, which the degree of his or her activity in looking for alternatives and considering proposals for other jobs. An unsuccessful search for alternatives determines the employee’s intention to stay in the organization, and a successful one strengthens the intention to stay (Mashuri & Maharani, 2019). Future research should be devoted to comprehensively considering organizational and personal factors that determine the departure or continuation of work in the organization. In particular, a hypothesis is that low job satisfaction positively correlates with the intention to stay work because of an unfavorable psychological atmosphere in the workplace, the tension in professional responsibilities, and dissatisfaction with the leadership, which determine the extent of engagement.
In turn, increased attention to workplace relationships, stress at work, and comfort for the employee is a characteristic feature of this issue, which allows assuming that an organization can influence the decision of employees to stay, creating a favorable atmosphere aimed at retention of employees in the company and developing a sense of organizational citizenship in employees. The stimulation of their engagement in the life of the company can be explored based on care demonstration, provision with access to timely and relevant information, and training in the workplace.
H8: Engagement as a moderator predetermines the relationships between job satisfaction and the intention to stay an organization.
Job Satisfaction Mediating Person Environment Fit and Organization Commitment
Since there is a positive relationship between person-environment fit and organizational commitment, job satisfaction might be regarded a mediator between the variables. This is because as was discussed in the literature review, the person-environment fit theory and commitment are pertaining to the individual’s choice of a suboptimal workplace that would align with their values and expectations. However, the extent of one’s job satisfaction may affect the person’s overall perception of their work and therefore mediate their view. The connection between the levels of P-E fit, organizational commitment, and the presence of job satisfaction in staff members has also been addressed in the studies by Ahmad (2012) and Gul et al. (2018) correspondingly. Mentioning the specified variables in tandem, the authors indicate that there is a link between them, yet further correlation is to be examined more closely. Thus, a notable research gap can be observed.
H9: There is a positive impact of job satisfaction as a mediator on person-environment fit (an independent variable), resulting in organizational commitment (a dependent variable) since a satisfied workforce is more likely to perform optimally and remain loyal to an organization.
Job Satisfaction Mediating Person Environment Fit and Intention to stay
Job satisfaction is a mediator in the person-environment fit and intention to stay relationship since person-environment fit predetermines job satisfaction, which ultimately affects intention to stay. The relationship between these variables is linked to an individual selecting an environment for work where they will be satisfied with the work conditions and the perspectives and therefore, their intention to look for a different position should be low. Specifically, papers by Ahmad (2012) and Shah et al. (2018) confirm that job satisfaction has an influence on the P-E fit levels, as well as the willingness to retire.
H10: There is a positive relationship between a high person-fit environment (an independent variable) and low intention to stay (a dependent variable) as job satisfaction mediates a person-fit environment as a dominant force in one’s career.
Job Satisfaction Mediating Psychological Capital and Organization Commitment
Job satisfaction is a mediator between psychological capital and organizational commitment due to the dependence of job satisfaction on psychological capital, which generates organizational commitment. The exploration of this variable is especially interesting since the literature review suggests that in some industries, psychological capital does not affect satisfaction and with one’s work and organizational commitment.
H11: There is a mediating role of job satisfaction regarding psychological capital (an independent variable), the amount of which impacts the level of organizational commitment (a dependent variable).
Job Satisfaction Mediating Psychological Capital and Intention to stay
The mediating effect of job satisfaction on psychological capital and intention to stay is validated by the dependence of job satisfaction on psychological capital; job satisfaction level predetermines intention to stay. This mediating effect will help understand whether one’s psychological capital strengthens a person’s intention to stay an organization or vice versa, where it supports there decision to work in an environment where their satisfaction with work is low.
H12: Job satisfaction as a mediator enriches psychological capital (an independent variable), which reduces the intention to stay (a dependent variable) since having meaningful job experiences is attractive to employees.
Theories to Explain the Framework
Each of the variables that are discussed in this study has a theoretical background, linking it to the organizational performance and employee’s attitudes towards their employers. For example, the basic theory of the fit between the person and the environment studied by Anglin et al. (2018) and Guan et al. (2021) suggest that there is a set of inherent characteristics or values that an individual has, which either align with those of the company or do not. These values predetermine the attitudes and the ability of the person to work in a specific environment, which is linked to their performance, intention to stay, and commitment, studied by Kim et al. (2010), Greenberg, and Baron (2007), Kahn (1990) and others. Ultimately, each of these factors, as shown by the research in this literature review, has an effect on how the individual performs their duties and how they perceive their organization, which are crucial for the businesses’ success in the contemporary competitive environment, where the human resources are the vital sources of advancement.
Person-Environment Fit Theory
According to a person-environment fit theory, there are reciprocal relationships between an individual and his or her environment, which means that both people and their contexts can impact each other. This theory postulates that a combination of individual resources and environmental factors identify the ability to adapt to changes (Morin, 2018). In terms of this theory, the fit between a person and environment predetermines a person’s behaviors and motivations (Anglin et al., 2018; Guan et al., 2021). This theory can be used as a theoretical framework to better understand the relationships between engagement moderating person-environment fit and job satisfaction, intention to stay, and organizational commitment, as well as job satisfaction mediating the mentioned variables (Greguras & Diefendorff, 2009).
The personality dimension can be researched in terms of the amount of employee knowledge, skills, and competencies, while the environment can be considered as corresponding skills and abilities required for the work process (Yu, 2009). For instance, the discrepancy between the value of a person as an employee and his or her firm can serve to predict the intention to stay (Greguras et al., 2014). The characteristics of the environment can include income and opportunities from its side designed to meet the needs of employees, as well as requirements for their abilities (Chuang et al., 2016). For example, the workload may not meet the employer’s requirements, also posing a threat that the employees will not meet other requirements. Another potential implication of the identified theory is assessing to what extent an employee seeks to control the pace of work and to what extent this or her control is provided by technological capabilities (Schmidt et al., 2015). The organization, in turn, can take measures to address negative aspects and increase organizational commitment through greater job satisfaction (Lee et al., 2021). For example, an organization may change its approach to recruiting, promotion, and training.
Addiionally, the P-E fit theory introduces opportunities for creating a unique adaptive mechanism for individuals based on the developmental stage at which they are facing the necessity to change and acquire resilience toward the challenges within the target environment. For instance, Shen et al. (2018) and Wang and Wang (2018) suggest modifying the P-E fit framework toward the stage-environment fit so that respective changes could be made and so that individuals could gain the confidence and prowess needed to navigate the new setting. The described approach toward the P-E fit framework invites further possibilities for promoting motivation and the subsequent increase in retention rates in staff members by creating the environment that will suit their specific needs based on the unique stage of their personal and professional development (Calzo et al., 2020). Therefore, incorporating the theoretical perspectives that will enable managers to shape the context of the workplace setting to promote positive change in the staff is vital. Moreover, the P-E fit theory introduces the chance to connect P-E fit to the concepts of employee engagement and employees’ decision to leave (Xiao et al., 2021). Namely, the theory confirms that the change in the workplace setting toward a more comfortable one, particularly, the one that meets employees’ unique needs, is conducive to an improvement in retention rates and employee motivation along with employee engagement.
An affect theory by Locke is another theoretical foundation that can be used to explain the chosen framework. This theory claims that job satisfaction is largely determined by the value people to assign to the various aspects of their work, as well as the extent to which their job-related expectations are met. Morin (2018) emphasizes that the underlying argument is that an individual’s values inform his or her expectations, while the discrepancy between the anticipated benefits and reality identifies either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Regarding the target framework, the affect theory is beneficial to explore the intention to stay, psychological capital, and person-environment fit, and organizational commitment.
The affect theory is valuable to utilize to better understand how employees identify and view their job satisfaction and associated workplace settings and changes. The key idea to be considered in future research is that the discrepancy between job requirements and an individual’s needs and abilities determines job satisfaction (Ahern, 2018). In addition, this theory states that the extent to which a person values one or another aspect of the job impacts his or her job satisfaction, while this impact can be either positive or negative. By using the affect theory as a framework, it would be possible to analyze the relationships between the identified variables in a more detailed and comprehensive manner.
Moreover, with the adoption of the affect theory, opportunities for examining the connection between motivation and the levels of employee engagement, as well as the extent of job satisfaction, emerge. Specifically, the affect theory allows connecting employees’ willingness to perform and improve to their emotional state (Ariani, 2015). As a result, a better management of employees’ engagement becomes possible (Singh, 2016). Furthermore, the affect theory suggests that, with the rise in emotional satisfaction and gratification obtained from performing workplace duties, staff members are likely to be less willing to resign (Osborne & Hammoud, 2017).
Indicators of Person Environment Fit in the Current Study:
- Person–Organization Fit
- Person–Job Fit
- Person–Group Fit
- Person–Person Fit
Indicators of Psychological Capital in the Current Study:
Indicators of Job Satisfaction in the Current Study:
- Salary and incentives
- Work Relations
- Employment empowerment
- Physical work environment
Indicators of work relations in the current study, for example:
- Work relations with colleagues
- Work relations with superiors
- Work relations with subordinates
- Work relationships with clients or with public.
Indicators of Employee Engagement in the Current Study:
Indicators of Organizational Commitment in the Current Study:
- Emotional or Affective Commitment
- Normative or Ethical Commitment
- Continued Commitment
Emotional or Affective Commitment:
- Phrases of emotional or affective commitment in the current study, for example:
- I have a strong feeling of belonging to that organization for which I work.
- I feel emotionally attached to this organization.
- I feel like a family member of that organization.
- I would be very happy if I spend the rest of my life working in this organization.
Normative or Ethical Commitment:
- Phrases of normative or ethical loyalty job in the current study, for example:
- I feel obligated to stay in the organization due to pressure from others.
- I feel compelled to stay in the organization in order not to leave a bad impression on my colleagues because I left my work.
- I have a moral and personal obligation to remain in this organization.
- This organization has a merit over me, and it is not ethical in general and work ethics to leave work in this organization.
Phrases of job satisfaction in the current study, for example:
- I see the need to continue working in this organization.
- Working in this organization brings many benefits to me.
- Leaving this organization is costing me a lot.
- I need to continue with this organization because I cannot bear the burden of living otherwise.
Indicators of Intention to stay in the Current Study:
- Employee’s perception of organization support
- Employee’s perception of organization commitment
- Employee’s perception of job satisfaction
- Employee’s perception of job engagement
Research Methods and Analysis
The current research will try to achieve the following objectives:
- Measuring the person environment fit, psychological capital, job satisfaction, job engagement, organizational commitment and intention to stay for the employees in the UAE ICT Sector.
- Determining the type and degree of the relationships between these six variables for the employees in the UAE ICT Sector.
- Presenting some suggestions and recommendations to increase improve and strengthen the person environment fit, psychological capital job satisfaction, job engagement, organizational commitment for the employees in the UAE ICT Sector and to decrease their intention to stay.
Based on the nature of the study, the most appropriate design to be adopted is a Mixed method research design. The mixed-method is used since Smith (2018) and Walker and Boyne (2005) note that this approach is suitable for addressing the complex questions, which allows comparing the different types of data that is suitable for making in-depth conclusions. Moreover, unlike quantitative research, this method will allow the researcher to reflect on the findings and on the opinions that the participants have voiced while using the quantitative results as a basis for these conclusions. The mixed method research design will make it possible to conduct a comprehensive explanation of how each of the independent variables relates to or can influence the dependent variable. This study belongs to the descriptive / analytical studies, where the Person Environment Fit & Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction, Job Engagement, Organizational Commitment, and Intention to stay status of the research sample will be described, as well as the kind and degree of relationship between these six variables will also be measured, and the description here includes a qualitative and quantitative description.
The social survey method will be used, were surveying the opinions, perspectives, and attitudes of the research sample towards their Person Environment Fit, Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction, Job Engagement, Organizational Commitment, and Intention to stay, with the aim of monitoring the lived reality at the present time, and arriving at a set of recommendations and suggestions to improve, increase and enhance the degree of Person Environment Fit, Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction, Job Engagement, Organizational Commitment and decrease Intention to stay.
This research will be conducted in the context of the UAE telecommunications sector, which means that the results could be generalized for the companies in the ICT that operate in the Middle East. This generalizability issue is linked to the specifics and differences in terms of culture that exists between the Arab and Western or Asian states, and therefore, there is a need to consider the organizational context when generalizing the findings of this research.
The spatial field of this study will be on the UAE ICT Sector.
- The research population: all the employees at the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority and Digital Government which is 400 employees as per the data of June 2021, plus technical Etisalat and du employees.
- The research sample: a stratified random sample of size 400 will be taken from the research population.
This research sample size has been determined according to the appropriate sample size determination table in the social and administrative research studies (Abo El Nasr, 2017, 250). Also, the following website was guided in determining the research sample size in the case of 95% confidence level and 5% confidence interval rate: www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm.
To determine the sample size specifically, the 1967 formula developed by Yamane will be used, which allows receiving a 95% confidence level.
It is the period the researcher takes to conduct the study theoretically and, on the field, and in this study amounted to about two years. The data collection period will be about one month in 2022.
The unit of analysis will be the scales on the Likert chart, which will contain questions pertaining to each of the variables. Three scales for employees who are working in the UAE ICT Sector. The scale on 7-points (Likert) scale will be prepared to measure the relationship between the six variables:
- A scale of Person Environment Fit and Psychological Capital.
- A scale of Job Satisfaction and Job Engagement.
- A scale of Organizational Commitment and Intention to stay.
To ensure validity and reliability on research findings are relevant, researcher will use an appropriate scale, sampling technique and data analysis method which also covers the accuracy and the quality of the research. Specifically, stratified sampling will be utilized in order to ensure that key data is collected fast and effectively. Since the use of conveniece sampling implies a possible drop in accuracy and representability of data, the application of the stratified sampling approach as the means of determining key trends within each specific group will be considered an important chnge to the sampling framework. Moroever, with the use of interviews, increasing information accuracy will be possible.
The validity of the scale will be tested later, through the following steps:
- Presenting the scale to the research supervisor and several judgers / reviewers specialized in human resources and organizational behavior (about 5) and to a specialist in SPSS and statistics science.
- Applying the scale to several employees at the Telecommunication and Digital Government Regulatory Authority in UAE. (about 10).
- Amending, correcting, and reviewing the scale based on the comments of the research supervisor, judgers / reviewers, the specialist in SPSS and statistics science and employees.
The reliability of the scale will be tested later, through using the Cronbach’s Alpha value. The research data will be tabulating by using SPSS program (Version 24). The following statistical methods will be used to present the research data and to test the validity of the research hypotheses: Percentages, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, range ,6 square, Cronbach, alpha, regression Analysis, T-test, F- test etc…
Work Plan and Timetable
It is important to develop a work plan that identifies specific activities that will be carried out in the study. The work plan helps in breaking down the entire project into specific tasks that should be completed within a specific time. The following Gantt chart identifies these activities and the timeline within which they should be completed. As shown in the table, all the activities should be completed by the end of May/June 2021.
Since most aspects of work are intertwined and are affected by each other, directly or indirectly, positively or negatively, and to a high, medium, or low degree, we believe that most aspects of work are intertwined and are affected by each other in the vast majority of matters. Similarly, we notice that science analysis on today’s organizations focuses on the analysis of certain variables, in order to determine the form and degree of interrelationships within these variables, and we discover that these variables are interrelated and overlap.
In summary, this paper is a research proposal that describes a mixed-method study focusing on the different organizational factors that affect the attitudes and work performance of the individuals employed in the ICT sector in the UAE. Hence, the goal of this study is to examine the interconnection of the different variables and their moderating and mediating effect on one another. The anticipated outcome is the ability to draw conclusions regarding how businesses can structure their organizational environments and HR practices to ensure that their employees work productively, receive effective training that makes these human resources a valuable asset and a competitive advantage, and stay with the company. These outcomes will be specific to the ICT industry in the UAE because it is a growing economic sector and the priority for the economic development set by the state’s government. Therefore, this study will contribute significantly to the business activity development in the UAE and will help businesses.
The possible future gaps include the difference in the importance of the different factors since this study will not examine the specific level of impact that the six variables have on the organizational outcomes and employee’s work. Moreover, future research can use the theoretical model and framework developed in this paper to study the six factors in question-based on different industries or even states. This is because the culture of the UAE differs from that in the West or Asia, and the employees’ attitudes and perceptions may vary greatly depending on the social context that they live and work in, which means that the conclusions of this study may be not applicable to these environments.
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