There is a distinction between job and work analysis, particularly in organizations. Identifying the essential criteria for the company’s activities will help managers hire the right individuals, set competitive pay ranges, and establish best practices to assess employee performance. Job analysis (JA) is the process of researching and gathering information and using the data to improve overall effectiveness (Planning and human resource, n.d.). In essence, it is a method of gathering knowledge regarding the nature of a position and the attributes and capabilities required (Job analysis, n.d.). The outcome of JA is job documentation (Gregg Learning, 2017). On the other hand, work analysis (WA) identifies job opportunities and the need for reorganization and restructuring. WA includes specifying the supply and demand of labor that exist now and in the future. Generally, a strategy for addressing the gaps must be devised utilizing systematic techniques and creativity to avoid surplus or shortage.
Understanding JA in HRM vital because it provides organizations with an overview of a role’s most critical requirements. According to Hanafi (2019), this allows businesses to make the best hiring decisions and assist current employees in performance improvement. Neglecting this step would mean attracting the wrong candidates (Gentle, 2020). Employee dissatisfaction and inappropriate assignation might result from hiring the wrong person or elevating team members who are not suitable for their new function. WA is mainly crucial due to “the changing nature of work” (Wegman et al., 2018, p. 352). The primary goal of a WA is to advise business owners on enhancing their company’s overall performance, which can include spotting work that is not being done or that is being performed unnecessarily slowly, resulting in bottlenecks.
Every organization’s productivity is based on its employees and their roles. Performance declines, earnings plummet, and the business cannot meet the needs of stakeholders if job analysis is not adequately conceived and implemented. Well-designed jobs follow specific strategies to ensure the success of person-job fit and, ultimately, the organization. JA has three main processes: “preparation, collection of job information, and use of job information for improving organizational effectiveness” (Planning and human resource, n.d., p. 62). Each phase consists of a series of tasks that HRM must complete.
During the preparation for JA, HRM familiarizes with the firm and the job. They also determine the significance of the JA information beyond HRM. Finally, the HRM is tasked with identifying the job to be assessed. The second phase involves collecting data by explicitly identifying the source, tool and methodology. Reviewing resources that illustrate the tasks performed on the job is an excellent starting point (United States Office of Personnel Management, n.d.). Even though the job holder is the most direct information source, other non-human and human reserves can also be employed. The last strategy for conducting a JB is the actual utilization of the outcome. Based on the information or business inputs, most HRM would produce draft checklists of duties and abilities needed to perform well in the position. Job descriptions and standards are used to organize the data gathered depending on the need of the organization. The outcome is usually a measured pattern of skills and other traits that an employee needs to execute occupational functions properly. Overall, JA gives essential data and systems that may be used to develop various HR strategies, including personnel’s expertise.
Gentle, S. (2020). The importance of conducting a job analysis. Onrec.
Gregg Learning. (2017). HR basics: Job analysis [Video]. YouTube.
Hanafi, A. (2019). Effect of organizational structure, job analysis and leadership style on work motivation and its impact on performance of employees. Journal of Public Administration Studies, 4(1), 39-45.
Job analysis – Definitions of job analysis – Importance of job analysis. (n.d.). Human Resource Management.
Planning and human resource. (n.d.).
United States Office of Personnel Management. (n.d.). Six steps to conducting job analysis. OPM.gov. =
Wegman, L. A., Hoffman, B. J., Carter, N. T., Twenge, J. M., & Guenole, N. (2018). Placing job characteristics in context: Cross-temporal meta-analysis of changes in job characteristics since 1975. Journal of Management, 44(1), 352-386.