The management structure in the organization, which will be analyzed in Signature Assignment, is linear. The linear management structure is formed as a result of the construction of the management apparatus only from mutually subordinate bodies in the form of a hierarchical ladder. At the head of each division is a head with full authority who exercises sole leadership of the employees subordinate to them, concentrating all management functions in their hands. The head themselves is directly subordinate to the head of the highest level (Al-Madhidi, 2020). The linear control structure is the simplest. In the linear structure, the division of the control system into its component parts is carried out on a production basis. It takes into account the degree of concentration of production, technological features, the breadth of the product range, etc. With such a construction, the principle of unity of command is most respected. One person concentrates in his hands the management of the entire set of operations. At the same time, subordinates carry out the orders of only one supervisor.
The higher management body has no right to give orders to any executors, bypassing their direct supervisor. The structure is used by small and medium-sized firms engaged in simple production. There are no broad cooperative ties between the parts of the enterprise. The advantages of the linear management structure existing in the organization are the unity and clarity of management, as well as the consistency of the actions of performers (Al-Madhidi, 2020). There is a clear system of mutual relations between the manager and the subordinate. In response to direct instructions, a quick reaction always follows, which ensures ease of management and control. Performers receive orders and tasks linked to each other, provided with resources. In addition, the head is personally responsible for the final results of the activities of their department.
At the moment, some shortcomings of the linear structure that hinder the effective work of the organization are clearly expressed. First of all, these are too high requirements for a manager who must have extensive, versatile knowledge and experience in all management functions and areas of activity carried out by subordinates. This limits the manager’s ability to manage effectively (Dafneci-Paftrafu, 2019). Top-level managers are overloaded due to the huge amount of information, the flow of papers, the multiplicity of contacts with subordinates and superiors.
There is also a tendency in the organization towards paperwork when dealing with issues related to several divisions. There are no links for planning and training management personnel, which makes communication between performers difficult. Due to the concentration of power in the governing elite, the leadership style has a pronounced authoritarian character. The tendency to excessive centralization leads to the emergence of constant conflicts of linear and functional structures, creating the complexity of vertical communications. As a result, there is little flexibility and adaptability to changing situations (Dafneci-Paftrafu, 2019). In the work of managers at almost all levels, operational problems dominate over strategic ones. The criteria for the effectiveness and quality of the work of the departments and the organization as a whole are different. The tendency to formalize the evaluation of the effectiveness and quality of the work of departments leads to an atmosphere of fear and disunity, which is also the cause of conflicts.
Development Of Leadership Skills
The development of professional and technical skills is necessary for the successful operation of the organization. However, to achieve a high level of efficiency, only hard skills are not enough. Company employees need to learn how to lead people, take responsibility for the work of the team, and be proactive. To do this, the manager needs to give employees the initiative. At the moment, the heads of the organization give employees a certain minimum of tasks (Mahfodh & Obeidat, 2020). If an employee takes on responsibilities beyond this minimum, they will stand out in a positive light among competitors and give the company the opportunity to achieve better results.
It is necessary to develop about the activity of employees gradually, which should be taken into account in the development of the plan. Gradually, the staff will get used to taking the initiative and will take on more responsibility, which will lead to great prospects (Mahfodh & Obeidat, 2020). Another plus in showing initiative for employees is the growth of their skills, both technical and soft. They will be engaged in tasks in which they are not experts, that is, they will go out of their comfort zone. This automatically means active learning, which is a great way to pump up different skills.
Reducing And Resolving Conflicts
As a rule, the cause of conflict in various situations in a given organization is a clash of interests. For example, quarrels occur between the manager and employees because of an uncompensated bonus, between colleagues because of differences in points of view, or with the administrative department on budget issues. All of the above is the most common interpersonal type of confrontation in this organization (Patras et al., 2021). Thus, when drawing up a plan for the structure of the organization, it is necessary to consider ways to avoid conflict situations. The use of each of them will be effective in certain conditions.
Negotiations are one of the most effective ways to resolve conflicts. At the same time, the parties interact with each other, clearly indicating their requirements, but agreeing to compromise solutions. The negotiation method differs from the others due to the following features. This method implies that the parties are equal and ready to interact with each other openly. During negotiations, the use of force to resolve the conflict is excluded. The parties have control over the process, the possibility of changing conditions based on mutual agreement and can also determine time limits. The negotiation process takes place in accordance with the rules of the organization designated by the parties. The decision made as a result of negotiations between the parties is informal.
Various negotiation strategies can be used, focusing on the goal of interaction. The first strategy is positional bargaining which is the behavior based on the confrontation of the parties. At the same time, in an attempt to achieve the most profitable result for oneself, the interests of the opponent are not taken into account (Patras et al., 2021). According to the second strategy, the negotiation process is based on mutual interests. The behavior is a partnership, the opinions and goals of each of the parties are taken into account; this is the strategy which should be aimed for while developing the plan.
Opportunities For Positive Change
Positive change, in this case, is due to the need for changes that employees note and realize. Since they see the need to make an urgent decision, this will reduce their resistance to change. Positive prerequisites for changes are economic, including the globalization of the market and its regional differentiation. There are also positive technological opportunities for the organization, which consist in the rapid spread of new technologies (Quelhas et al., 2019). Changes in legislation, demographic shifts and changes in the value system, climatic conditions, and the load on the ecosystem constitute political, legal, socio-cultural and physical and environmental positive opportunities.
Among the internal motives that can be considered as the reason for positive opportunities, one can single out the aspirations and vision of managers and employees their orientation of the manager to success and development. An important role is played by crises that have arisen in the process of growth and development of the organization and the presence of organizational pathologies. These factors together motivate them to carry out changes, giving them a positive color and a more serious focus on them.
Development Of the Plan
The development of the plan will include a matrix management structure. The organizational structure of the plan management will be based on the principle of double subordination of employees. In the case of a matrix structure of the plan, the employee of the organization will report to the head of his department and the project manager. As for the management, at this level in the matrix scheme, within the framework of the plan, there will be a separation of the rights of heads of departments and projects. The first will deal with the distribution of responsibilities for tasks, and the second – the setting of deadlines and the content of work.
Graphically, the matrix structure of the plan will be depicted in the form of a lattice. The matrix of such a plan system will represent the intersection of the design and functional structure. Vertically on the plan, the management by division will be built, and horizontally, according to the program-target structure, the management of the implementation of the plan will be organized (Quelhas et al., 2019). The purpose of applying the matrix structure in the organization of the plan will be to increase the effectiveness of the interaction of the organization’s departments in order to implement the plan. The matrix structure of the plan, due to its flexibility, will allow for dynamic restructuring when setting new tasks. It will contribute to greater coordination in the implementation of the plan.
Tools Of Organizational Behavior
Applying Leadership Concepts
The job of the diverse team members is to come up with a new, original idea. However, coming up with an original idea and implementing it is not the same action. Thus, the members of the diverse team always create an idea, and its implementation should be handled by the leader of the creative project. This person should use various leadership concepts to assess the significance of the proposed idea and design it according to market requirements (Al-Madhidi, 2020). Based on this, the use of various leadership concepts facilitates the extremely difficult task facing the leader. They help to evaluate the potential capabilities of the diverse team and direct these capabilities in the right direction.
Describing the theoretical basis of the competencies of the creative team leader, it is worth noting the concepts applicable to the key skills of the diverse team leader. These concepts guide the ability to protect your team from outsiders, protect the members of the creative team from themselves and try not to protect the team from the team itself. The ability to protect the team means that the interference of non-professionals in the discussion of the ideas of members of the creative team destroys the work of the team (Al-Madhidi, 2020). Describing the ability to protect the team from themselves, the authors of the concept emphasize that diverse people tend to never be completely satisfied with the results of their work, which cannot allow the team to move on. Thus, the leader of diverse teams, with the help of concepts, should clearly distinguish between the processes of criticism of the work done and satisfaction with the result and find a balance between these two categories.
The ability and desire of the leader to perform general management functions are the key to the systematic and without undesirable conflicts of the work of a particular unit. According to the tools studied during the educational program, these include planning, organization, regulation and control. A leader can apply several effective ways to manage a conflict situation (Dafneci-Paftrafu, 2019). There are different approaches to understanding the role of a leader in conflict resolution. The first is that it is advisable for a leader to focus on the role of a mediator in a conflict and not an arbitrator. It is believed that arbitration has a number of features that reduce its effectiveness when used in resolving interpersonal conflicts. The second approach is that the leader needs to be able to flexibly apply all types of mediation (Dafneci-Paftrafu, 2019). The main roles for the leader are the roles of an arbitrator and mediator, and the additional roles of an arbitrator, assistant and observer.
The leader’s activity includes analysis of the situation and conflict resolution. The leader receives information about the conflict through various channels. They may be a witness to the conflict, one or both participants may contact them, information may come from the environment of opponents or from higher management. If the information received indicates a dangerous development of the conflict, then the leader stops the confrontation of opponents or restricts their interaction. Collecting data on the conflict allows getting information about the contradiction underlying the conflict, its causes, the positions of the participants, the goals defended, and their relationships.
Developing Leadership Skills
One of the directions of development of leadership potential and leadership qualities among employees of modern organizations for this organization is the tool offered during training. This is the introduction of an emotional leadership development program to the HR departments of companies. A corporate emotional leadership development program should be a tool for those leaders of advanced companies who make the development of their organization’s EQ part of the corporate culture (Mahfodh & Obeidat, 2020). As a result of mastering such a program, the level of EQ and leadership qualities of employees at all levels will significantly increase. It is particularly worth noting such benefits from conducting a corporate emotional leadership development program as increasing staff motivation and increasing the value of the company as an employer. Using this approach, it is possible to achieve an evolutionary breakthrough in the organization since it includes several important stages of EQ development that are practically unattainable in the case of traditional training. When every person in an organization is a leader, it positively affects both his personal effectiveness and the work of the entire system.
Al-Madhidi, S. S. (2020). Organizational behavior and its relationship to the leadership personality of the university student. Relationship Of Organizational Behavior, 23(11), 1-6.
Dafneci-Paftrafu, D. (2019). Implications of modern leadership styles on managers’ organizational behavior. Economic Sciences Series, 0(2), 467-473.
Mahfodh, A. B., & Obeidat, A. M. (2020). Knowledge sharing tools and their impact on enhancing organizational performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(9), 91-112.
Patras, Y. E., Hidayat, R., & Billah, M. A. (2021). Contribution and priority action of the self-efficacy and organizational climate to improve innovative work behavior. Journal Study Management Pendidikan, 11(52), 919-926.
Quelhas, A. D., Filho, J. R., Neto, J. V., & Pereira, V. (2019). Model to measure adherence of culture, climate, and organizational behavior in a construction company. Journal of Management in Engineering, 35(4), 64-66.